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Tuesday, 14 December 2010

NOTA-NOTA LAMA : PERLEMBAGAAN 3


Perlembagaan Persukutuan Malaysia
Nota Kuliah3


1. Undang-undang tertinggi.

Dari peruntukan artikel 4 (1) dan 162 (6) adalah jelas perlembagaan adalah undang-undang tertinggi.

4(1)

(1) This Constitution is the supreme law of the Federation and any law passed after Merdeka Day which is inconsistent with this Constitution shall, to the extent of the inconsistency, be void.

162. Existing laws

(6) Any court or tribunal applying the provision of any existing law has not been modified on or after Merdeka Day under this Article or otherwise may apply it with such modifications as may be necessary to bring it into accord with the provisions of this Constitution.

Artikel 4 digunakan untuk undang-undang selepas Hari Merdeka dan artikel 162(6) adalah untuk sebelum hari merdeka.

Perkara penting Mahkamah atau tribunal yang diberi kuasa untuk meminda undang-undang tersebut dan bukannya Perlimen.

Peruntukan kedua-dua ini jua menunjukkan Parlimen bukan yang tertinggi tetapi perlembagaan lebih supreme.

Contoh lain di mana Parlimen yang membuat undang-undang adalah tidak supreme dapat dilihat dalam kes Mamat Daud Vs Kerajaan Malaysia (1988) 1 MLJ 119.

[Fakta kes : tertuduh telah dituduh menjadi iman,khatib dan bilal tanpa diberi kuasa dibawah Enekman Pentadbiran Ugama Islam Terengganu dibawah seksen 298A Kanun Keseksaan. Isunya OKT tidak boleh di tuduh dibawah seksen tersebut kerana perkara berkaitan dengan islam adalah dibawah kuasa kerajaan negeri seperti artikel 74 dan 75 Perlembagaan.Mahkamah memutuskan Parlimen tidak boleh membuat peruntukan seksen 298A kerana bertentangan dengan Perlembagaan.]

* Seksen ini masih terdapat didalam undang-undang kerana bagi Wilayah Persukutuan soal ugama islam adalah dibawah Parlimen.Maksudnya ianya boleh dipakai untuk Wilayah Persukutuan.

Fakta Penoh

Facts:
In this case, each of the petitioners was charged for an offence under s 298A of Penal Code for doing an act which is likely to prejudice unity among persons professing the Islamic religion. They were alleged to have acted as an unauthorised Bilal, Khatib and Imam at a Friday prayer in Kuala Terengganu without being so appointed under the Terengganu Administration of Islamic Law Enactment 1955. The issue before the court is whether the said section which was enacted by Parliament by an amending Act in 1983 is ultra viresArticle 74(1) of the Federal Constitution, since the subject matter of the legislation is reserved for the State Legislatures and therefore beyond the legislative competency of Parliament. Leave was obtained for the petitioners to file a suit for declaratory orders to the effect that the new s 298A of the Penal Code is invalid on the ground that it makes provision with respect to a matter with respect to which Parliament has no power to make laws — see [1986] 2 MLJ 192.


It was contended by the petitioners that the law is invalid as being ultra vires the Constitution because, having regard to the pith and substance of the section, it is a law which ought to be passed not by Parliament but by State Legislative Assemblies, it being a legislation on Islamic religion, according to Article 11 cl (4) and item 1 of List II, Ninth Schedule of the Federal Constitution. The respondent on the other hand contended that the section is valid because it is a law passed by Parliament on the basis of public order, internal security and also criminal law according to Article 11 cl (5) and items (3) and (4) of List I of the Ninth Schedule of the Federal Constitution.


Holdings:


Held, by a majority (Hashim Yeop A Sani and Abdoolcader SC JJ dissenting):


(1) having considered and examined the provisions of s 298A of the Penal Code as a whole, it is colourable legislation in that it pretends to be a legislation on public order, when in pith and substance it is a law on the subject of religion with respect to which only the states have power to legislate under Articles 74 and 77 of the Federal Constitution;


(2) there must be a declaration that s 298A of the Penal Code is a law with respect to which Parliament has no power to make law and a declaration that s 298A of the Penal Code is invalid and therefore null and void and of no effect;


(3) the ruling shall not apply to the Federal Territories of Kuala Lumpur and Labuan and is to take effect from the date of the order, that is 13 October 1987.

Dalam kes diatas Mamat Daud telah di tuduh dibawah seksen 298A Kanun Keseksaan.

[298A. Causing, etc., disharmony, disunity, or feelings of enmity, hatred or ill-will, or prejudicing etc, the maintenance of harmony or unity, on grounds of religion

Tetapi mengikut senarai kedua butiran pertama Perlimen tidak boleh membuat undang-udang bersangkutan dengan perkara ugama.Ianya adalah dibawah bidang kuasa kerajaan negeri seperti peruntukan artikal 74 dan 77.

[74. Subject matter of federal and State laws

(2) Without prejudice to any power to make laws conferred on it by any other Article, the Legislature of a State may make laws with respect to any of the matters enumerated in the State List (that is to say, the Second List set out in the Ninth Schedule) or the Concurrent List.]

[77. Residual power of legislation
The Legislature of a State shall have power to make laws with respect to any matter not enumerated in any of the Lists set out in the Ninth Schedule, not being a matter in respect of which Parliament has power to make laws.]

Senarai Kedua butiran pertama.( Senarai perkara yang boleh dibuat undang-undang oleh kerajaan negeri)

1. Except with respect to the Federal Territories of Kuala Lumpur, Labuan and Putrajaya, Islamic law and personal and family law of persons professing the religion of Islam, including the Islamic law relating to succession, testate and intestate, betrothal, marriage, divorce, dower, maintenance, adoption, legitimacy, guardianship, gifts, partitions and non-charitable trusts; Wakafs and the definition and regulation of charitable and religious trusts, the appointment of trustees and the incorporation of persons in respect of Islamic religious and charitable endowments, institutions, trusts, charities and charitable institutions operating wholly within the State; Malay customs; Zakat, Fitrah and Baitulmal or similar Islamic religious revenue; mosques or any Islamic public places of worship, creation and punishment of offences by persons professing the religion of Islam against precepts of that religion, except in regard to matters included in the Federal List; the constitution, organisation and procedure of Syariah courts which shall have jurisdiction only over persons professing the religion of Islam and in respect only of any of the matters included in this paragraph, but shall not have jurisdiction in respect of offences except in so far as conferred by federal law, the control of propagating doctrines and beliefs among persons professing the religion of Islam; the determination of matters of Islamic law and doctrine and Malay custom.]

2. Tatacara khas undang-undang diluluskan.

Perlembagaan juga menggariskan beberapa tatacara khas sebelum undang-undang tertentu di luluskan. Contohnya seperti peruntukan artike 89(1) dan 159(3).

89(1) Rezab melayu di sesebuah negeri hanya boleh di luluskan dengan sokongan majoriti 2/3 di peringkat negeri dan diluluskan oleh parlimen dengan sokongan majoriti 2/3

[89. Malay reservations
(1) Any land in a State which immediately before Merdeka Day was a Malay reservation in accordance with the existing law may continue as a Malay reservation in accordance with that law until otherwise provided by an Enactment of the Legislature of that State, being an Enactment -

(a) passed by a majority of the total number of members of the Legislative Assembly and by the votes of not less than two-thirds of the members present and voting; and
(b) approved by resolution of each House of Parliament passed by a majority of the total number of members of that House and by the votes of not less than two-thirds of the members voting.]

159(3) Rang undang-undang tidak boleh diluluskan sekiranya tidak mendapat sokongan majoriti 2/3 pada bacaan kali kedua dan ketiga dari kedua-dua dewan rakyat dan negara.


[159. Amendment of the Constitution

(3) A Bill for making any amendment to the Constitution (other than an amendment excepted from the provisions of this Clause) and a Bill for making any amendment to a law passed under Clause (4) of Article 10 shall not be passed in either House of Parliament unless it has been supported on Second and Third Readings by the votes of not less than two-thirds of the total number of members of that House.]

Ada kalanya undang-undang hanya boleh di pinda dengan mendapat keizinan kerajaan negeri dan majlis raja-raja. Contohnya dibawah artikel 2(b).


2(b) Parlimen boleh meminda sempadan sesuatu negeri dengan mendapat persetujuan dari dewan negeri dan majlis raja-raja.
.
[ Admission of new territories into the Federation

2. Parliament may by law -
(a) admit other States to the Federation;
(b) alter the boundaries to any State,
but a law altering the boundaries of a State shall not be passed without the consent of that State (expressed by a law made by the Legislature of that State) and of the Conference of Rulers.]

Sesetengah pindaan undang-undang mesti mendapat keizinan majilis raja-raja seperti peruntukan artikel 159(5).

[159. Amendment of the Constitution

(5) A law making an amendment to Clause (4) of Article 10, any law passed thereunder, the provisions of Part III, Article 38, 63 (4), 70, 71 (1), 72 (4), 152 or 153 or to this Clause shall not be passed without the consent of the Conference of Rulers.]

Kuasa ini juga hendalah dibaca bersama mengikut peruntukan artikel 38(4) yang berbunyi :

Tidak ada undang-undang berkaitan dengan keistimewaan,kedudukan,kedaulatan raja-raja boleh diluluskana tanpa keizinan Majlis raja-raja.

[38. Conference of Rulers

(4) No law directly affecting the privileges, position, honours or dignities of the Rulers shall be passed without the consent of the Conference of Rulers.]

Bagi Sabah dan Sarawak Perlembagaan tidak boleh dipinda tanpa mendapat persetujuan Yang di Petuan Negeri dengan beberapa syarat seperti peruntukan artikel 161E(2).

[161e. Safeguards for constitutional position of States of Sabah and Sarawak


(2) No amendment shall be made to the Constitution without the concurrence of the Yang di-Pertua Negeri of the State of Sabah or Sarawak or each of the States of Sabah and Sarawak concerned, if the amendment is such as to affect the operation of the Constitution as regards any of the following matters:


(a) the right of persons born before Malaysia Day to citizenship by reason of a connection with the State, and (except to the extent that different provision is made by the Constitution as in force on Malaysia Day) the equal treatment, as regards their own citizenship and that of others, of persons born or resident in the State and of persons born or resident in the States of Malaya;


(b) the constitution and jurisdiction of the High Court in Sabah and Sarawak and the appointment, removal and suspension of judges of that court;


(c) the matters with respect to which the Legislature of the State may (or Parliament may not) make laws, and the executive authority of the State in those matters, and (so far as related thereto) the financial arrangements between the Federation and the State;


(d) religion in the State, the use in the State or in Parliament of any language and the special treatment of natives of the State;


(e) the allocation to the State, in any Parliament summoned to meet before the end of August 1970, of a quota of members of the House of Representatives not less, in proportion to the total allocated to the other States which are members of the Federation on Malaysia Day, than the quota allocated to the State on that Day.]


3. Hak asasi manusia.

Hak asasi di bawah perlembagaan dapat dilihat dibawah artikel 5- 13. Tetapi Parlimen diberikan kuasa untuk membataskan kebebasan yang diberi.Hak asasi tersebut boleh disekat dengan perkara berikut:

i. Oleh kuasa yang diberikan oleh Perlembagaan itu sendiri seperti

Artikel 11(5). Kebebasan berugama diberikan dengan syarat ianya tidak melibatkan ketenteraman,kesihatan awam dan moral.

[11. Freedom of religion


(5) This Article does not authorise any act contrary to any general law relating to public order, public health or morality.]

ii. Peruntukan artikel 149 untuk melawan subsevesif

Kebebasan diberikan boleh terbatal bagi kepentingan melawan subvesif (artikel 149.)

[149. Legislation against subversion, action prejudicial to public order, etc

(1) If an Act of Parliament recites that action has been taken or threatened by any substantial body of persons, whether inside or outside the Federation -

(a) to cause, or to cause a substantial number of citizens to fear, organised violence against persons or property; or

(b) to excite disaffection against the Yang di-Pertuan Agong or any Government in the Federation; or

(c) to promote feelings of ill-will and hostility between different races or other classes of the population likely to cause violence; or

(d) to procure the alteration, otherwise than by lawful means, of anything by law established; or

(e) which is prejudicial to the maintenance or the functioning of any supply or service to the public or any class of the public in the Federation or any part thereof; or

(f) which is prejudicial to public order in, or the security of, the Federation or any part thereof,
any provision of that law designed to stop or prevent that action is valid notwithstanding that it is inconsistent with any of the provisions of Article 5, 9, 10 or 13, or would apart from this Article be outside the legislative power of Parliament; and Article 79 shall not apply to a Bill for such an Act or any amendment to such a Bill.]

iii. Peruntukan artikel 150 semasa darurat.

Kebebasan terbatal apabila diistiharkan dadurat oleh Yang Di Pertuan Agong ( artikel 150.)

150(6). Proclamation of emergency
.
(6) Subject to Clause (6a), no provision of any ordinance promulgated under this Article, and no provision of any Act of Parliament which is passed while a Proclamation of Emergency is in force and which declares that the law appears to Parliament to be required by reason of the emergency, shall be invalid on the ground of inconsistency with any provision of this Constitution.

iv) Dengan meminda perlembagaan seperti peruntukan artikel 159.

4. Pembahagian kuasa didalam parlaimen di Malaysia.

i) Badan Executif (kerajaan).
ii) Badan Legislative/Perundangan (Perlimen).
iii) B adan Kehakiman (Judiaciary).
iv) Keuwangan.

5. Estoppel -bermasksud tidak boleh menidakkan apa yang telah diterima sebelum itu ( Cannot deny what you have accepted before).

Contract - Ada yang berpendapat contract tidak boleh cabar melalui perlembagaan.

Undang-undang Murtad - Undang-undang murtad dikatakan tidak sesuai dibuat kerana ia akan melanggar Perlembagaan iaitu artikel 11 mengenai kebebasan berugama.

6. Fundemental Liberty ( Hak kebebasan Asasi).

Hak terbahagi kepada dua iaitu hak biasa dan hak asasi.

Hak Biasa - datangnya dari undang-undang.

Hak Asasi - hak semulajadi (natural right) atau kadang-kadang dipanggil divine law.

7. Kuasa Palimen.
Power is conffered to Perlimen to enact law only on permitted, specified grounds. (Kuasa yang diberikan kepada Parlimen untuk membuat undang-undang hanya pada yang dibenarkan dan pada alasan yang telah dinyatakan ). Contohnya mengenai kebebasan berugama tidak boleh di lakukan atas alasan ketenteraman awam,kesihatan dan moral. Jika undang-undang hendak digubal maka ianya tidak boleh di nyatakan lebih dari tiga ciri-ciri diatas.

Penghuni Gua : Mungkin nota-nota ini boleh membantu anda semua dan pelajar untuk memahami sedikit sebanyak mengenaai perlembagaan. Tq

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