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Wednesday, 8 December 2010

NOTA-NOTA LAMA : PERLEMBAGAAN !!!!!



Preamble - Prakata.

Perlembagaan yang ideal mempunyai preamble seperti perlembagaan Amerika yang menjelaskan tujuan perlembagaan.Perlembagaan Malaysia tidak mempunyai preamble.Walau bagaimanapun perlembagaan Malaysia artikal 4 ada menyatakan perlembagaan adalah undang-undang tertinggi.

Artikal 4 (1) Perlembagaan.

Supreme law of the Federation

This Constitution is the supreme law of the Federation and any law passed after Merdeka Day which is inconsistent with this Constitution shall, to the extent of the inconsistency, be void.

(Perlembagaan adalah undang-undang tertinggi persekutuan dan sebarang undang-undang yang diluluskan selepas hari merdeka dimana tidak selaras dengan perlembagaan adalah terbatal).

Custom (adat) didalam perlembagaan di rujuk juga sebagai convention (konvensen).

Proses melulus rang undang-undang.

i. Bacaan pertama -tiada perbahasan.
ii. Bacaan kedua – perbahasaan dilakukan.
iii. Peringkat jawatan kuasa –membuat suntingan atau pindaan.
iv. Bacaan ketiga.

Pada setiap peringkat bacaan ianya mesti mendapat 2/3 majority dari ahli dewan iaitu 169.

Proses diatas tidak terdapat didalam didalam mana-mana undang-undang termasuk Akta Parlimen.Praktik yang di lakukan dikata tradisi ( Tradition of the house ).Garis panduan kasar terdapat didalam artikel 68 Perlembagaan Persekutuan.

Terdapat lebih kurang 190 negara yang mempunyai Perlembagaan betulis dan 10 tidak mempunyai perlembagaan bertulis seperti UK,New Zealand dan Arab Saudi.

Tidak ada tatacara umum untuk merangka perlembagaan.
Apex law –undang-undang tertinggi.(artikel 4)

Pindaan perlembagaan boleh dibuat mengikut peruntukan atikel 159.

Artikel 159 Perlembagaan

Amendment of the Constitution

(1) Subject to the following provisions of this Article and to Article 161e the provisions of this Constitution may be amended by federal law.
(2) (Repealed) .
(3) A Bill for making any amendment to the Constitution (other than an amendment excepted from the provisions of this Clause) and a Bill for making any amendment to a law passed under Clause (4) of Article 10 shall not be passed in either House of Parliament unless it has been supported on Second and Third Readings by the votes of not less than two-thirds of the total number of members of that House.

Simple majority bermaksud 2/3 dari ahli dewan yang hadir sahaja.

Selepas itu barulah dirujuk kepada agong untuk di perkenan dan digezet. Ada beberapa isu ianya mesti mendapat kelulusan majlis Raja-raja seperti hak istimewa orang melayu,ugama dan perkara berkait dengan raja.Perkara ini terdapat di bawah artikel 38(4) Perlembagaan dan artikel 159 (5) Perlembagaan.

Artikel 38(4) Perlembagaan.

Conference of Rulers (Majlis Raja-Raja)

(4) No law directly affecting the privileges, position, honours or dignities of the Rulers shall be passed without the consent of the Conference of Rulers.
(Tidak ada undang-undang yang melibatkan keistimewaan,kedudukan,kehurmatan raja-raja boleh di luluskan tanpa keizinan majlis raja-raja.)

(5) The Conference of Rulers shall be consulted before any change in policy affecting administrative action under Article 153 is made.

Artikel 159(5) Perlembagaan

Amendment of the Constitution

(5) A law making an amendment to Clause (4) of Article 10, any law passed thereunder, the provisions of Part III, Article 38, 63 (4), 70, 71 (1), 72 (4), 152 or 153 or to this Clause shall not be passed without the consent of the Conference of Rulers.

Sabah dan Sarawak mempunyai pengecualian dimana Perlembagaan tidak boleh di pinda tanpa persetujuan Yang di Pertuan Negeri seperti artikel 161e Perlembagaan.

Artikel 161e Perlembagaan.

Safeguards for constitutional position of States of Sabah and Sarawak

(2) No amendment shall be made to the Constitution without the concurrence of the Yang di-Pertua Negeri of the State of Sabah or Sarawak or each of the States of Sabah and Sarawak concerned, if the amendment is such as to affect the operation of the Constitution as regards any of the following matters:

Semua undang-undang adalah tertakluk kepada judicial review (semakan kehakiman).
Ada juga mahkamah tidak berhak untuk membuat judicial review sekiranya ianya berkaitan dengan polisi dan politik semata-mata.Keadaan ini di namakan non-juticiable.

Contoh dimana mahkamah mendapati undang-undang tidak mengikut perlembagaan adalah seksen 298A Kanun Keseksaan. Sebanyak 14 kali mahkamah memutuskan undang-undang tidak mengikut perlembagaan.

Seksen 298A Kanun Keseksaan.

Causing, etc., disharmony, disunity, or feelings of enmity, hatred or ill-will, or prejudicing etc, the maintenance of harmony or unity, on grounds of religion.

Ianya bertentangan dengan kebebasan berugama mengikut artikel 11 Perlembagaan.

Artikel 11 Perlembagaan

Freedom of religion

(1) Every person has the right to profess and practise his religion and, subject to Clause (4), to propagate it.
(2) No person shall be compelled to pay any tax the proceeds of which are specially allocated in whole or in part for the purposes of a religion other than his own.
(3) Every religious group has the right -
(a) to manage its own religious affairs;
(b) to establish and maintain institutions for religious or charitable purposes; and
(c) to acquire and own property and hold and administer it in accordance with law.
(4) State law and in respect of the Federal Territories of Kuala Lumpur, Labuan and Putrajaya, federal law may control or restrict the propagation of any religious doctrine or belief among persons professing the religion of Islam.
[Clause(4) amended by s13 of Act A1095]
(5) This Article does not authorise any act contrary to any general law relating to public order, public health or morality.

Sekiranya Parlimen lebih supreme dari perlembagaan maka intitusi kehakiman akan menjadi tidak stabil.


Penghuni Gua : Ini nota-nota lama PG tentang perlembagaan. Mungkin ianya berguna untuk kita semua.

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