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Wednesday, 22 December 2010

NOTA-NOTA LAMA PERLEMBAGAAN 5 !!!!!


Perlembagaan 5

1. Pilihanraya demokrasi.

Pilihanraya akan berjalan 5 tahun sekali.Apabila parlimen dibubarkan pilihanraya hendaklah dijalankan dalam masa 60 hari dari tarikh pembubaran parlimen mengikut artikel 55(3), 55(4).

55. Summoning, prorogation and dissolution of Parliament

(3) Parliament unless sooner dissolved shall continue for five years from the date of its first meeting and shall then stand dissolved.
(4) Whenever Parliament is dissolved a general election shall be held within sixty days from the date of the dissolution and Parliament shall be summoned to meet on a date not later than one hundred and twenty days from that date.

Adalah perkara yang tidak baik sesuatu Parlimen dibubarkan terlalu awal. Mengikut umur dewasa dibawah undang-undang adalah 18 tahun keatas. Tetapi di Malaysia orang yang layak mengundi adalah 21 tahun keatas. Ini menyebabkan 55% rakyat Malaysia tidak layak mengundi.Pengundian tidak melambangkan kehendak majoriti orang dewasa di Malaysia.
Luas kawasan mengundi adalah tidak sekata mengikut populasi. Bilangan ahli parlimen (MP) sepatutnya lebih kurang diimbangi dengan bilangan penduduk setiap kawasan. Keadaan ini dijelaskan dibawah jadual 13 2(c).

THIRTEENTH SCHEDULE

2. The following principles shall as far as possible be taken into account in dividing any unit of review into constituencies pursuant to the provisions of Articles 116 and 117-
(c) the number of electors within each constituency in a State ought to be approximately equal except that, having regard to the greater difficulty of reaching electors in the country districts and the other disadvantages facing rural constituencies, a measure of weightage for area ought to be given to such constituencies;

Setiap orang mempunyai hak yang sama untuk mengundi dan mempunyai nilai yang sama (one person, one vote, one value) seperti artikel 8.

8. Equality

(1) All persons are equal before the law and entitled to the equal protection of the law.
(2) Except as expressly authorised by this Constitution, there shall be no discrimination against citizens on the ground only of religion, race, descent or place of birth in any law or in the appointment to any office or employment under a public authority or in the administration of any law relating to the acquisition, holding or disposition of property or the establishing or carrying on of any trade, business, profession, vocation or employment.

Kawasan sempadan kontitusi disemak oleh Suruhanjaya Pilihanraya. Kawasan ini biasanya diukur/disukat mengikut kepentingan kerajaan yang memerintah. Keadaan sebegini dinamakan `gerrymandering`.

113. Conduct of elections

(1) There shall be an Election Commission, to be constituted in accordance with Article 114, which, subject to the provisions of federal law, shall conduct elections to the House of Representatives and the Legislative Assemblies of the States and prepare and revise electoral rolls for such elections.

(2) (i) Subject to paragraph (ii), the Election Commission shall, from time to time, as they deem necessary, review the division of the Federation and the States into constituencies and recommend such changes therein as they may think necessary in order to comply with the provisions contained in the Thirteenth Schedule; and the reviews of constituencies for the purpose of elections to the Legislative Assemblies shall be undertaken at the same time as the reviews of constituencies for the purpose of elections to the House of Representatives.

2. Parlimen yang dipilih.

Parlimen terdiri dari yang di Pertuan Agong , Dewan Negara dan Dewan Rakyat seperti peruntukan artikel 44.

44. Constitution of Parliament
The legislative authority of the Federation shall be vested in a Parliament, which shall consist of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong and two Majlis (Houses of Parliament) to be known as the Dewan Negara (Senate) and the Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives).

Dewan rakyat ujud pada peringkat Parlimen dan Negeri. Dewan Rakyat lebih mempunyai kuasa dari Dewan Negara.Komposisi di kedua-dua dewan ini seperti artikel 45 dan 46.

Parlimen bertanggungjawab :

i. Membuat undang-undang.
ii. Mengawal perbelanjaan.
iii. Mengawal/tadbir politik.
iv. Penyelesai masalah pengundi dikawasannya.

Walaupun proses membuat undang-undang tercatat didalam Perlembagaan ,badan Eksukutif (kerajaan) masih boleh mengeluarkan perundangan kecil/peraturan yang tidak memerlukan kelulusan dari tatacara Perlembagaan.Bagitu juga arahan-arahan pekeliling ,walaupun bukan undang-undang tetapi mempunyai kesan yang sama seperti undang-undang.Keadaan ini kadang-kadang dirujuk sebagai ` dark secret of democracy`. Sumber undang-undang adalah Undang-undang bertulis iaitu akta perlimen,enekmen,perundangan kecil.Common Law dan Adat (jika telah di iktiraf).

3. Islam di Malaysia.

Islam adalah ugama rasmi Malaysia dan bangsa lain bebas menganut ugama lain seperti artikel 3.

3. Religion of the Federation

(1) Islam is the religion of the Federation; but other religions may be practised in peace and harmony in any part of the Federation.

Pada mula pembentukan perlembagaan Malaysia suruhanjaya Reid yang diarah merangka perlembagaan Malaysia tidak mencadangkan Islam sebagai ugama rasmi.Walau bagaimanapun ahli lain didalam suruhanjaya tidak bersetuju.

4. Penjawat Awam

Penjawat awam tidak boleh dibuang kerja atau diturunkan pangkat oleh :

i. Pihak berkuasa yang rendah dari pihak berkuasa yang melantik penjawat awam itu.
ii. Tanpa diberi peluang untuk mendengar (memberi jawapan balas).

Peruntukan ini terdapat dibawah artikel 135(1) dan 135(2).

135. Restriction on dismissal and reduction in rank
(1) No member of any of the services mentioned in paragraphs (b) to (h) of Clause (1) of Article 132 shall be dismissed or reduced in rank by an authority subordinate to that which, at the time of the dismissal or reduction, has power to appoint a member of that service of equal rank:

(2) No member of such a service as aforesaid shall be dismissed or reduced in rank without being given a reasonable opportunity of being heard:

Contohnya kes yang berlaku adalah didalam kes SS Kanda V Kerajaan Malaysia, MLJ 1962.

[ Fakta kes – Sabjek telah di lantik oleh Suruhanjaya Polis dan dibuang kerja oleh Ketua Polis Negara. Beliau mendakwa Ketua Polis Negara adalah kuasa yang lebih rendah dari Suruhanjaya,maka pembuangannya tidak sah di bawah artikel 135(1) Perlembagaan ]

Facts:

The plaintiff (appellant on this appeal), an Inspector in the Royal Federation of Malaya Police Force,was first appointed on probation in 1951 and permanently appointed to the rank of Inspector on 1June 1953. On 7 July 1958 he was dismissed by the Commissioner of Police. Having exhausted his departmental rights of appeal, he commenced these proceedings on 1 October 1959. He asked for a declaration and other consequential reliefs stating that his purported dismissal on 7 July 1958 was void and inoperative and of no effect and that he was still a member of the said Police Force because, (a) the dismissal had been effected by an authority subordinate to that which at the time of dismissal had power to appoint a member of the Police Force of equal rank and that this was contrary to art 135(1) of the Constitution, and (b) it was effected without him being given a reasonable opportunity of being heard (at the board of inquiry held by the Police Force) and that this was contrary to art 135(2) of the Constitution and natural justice. In the High Court ([1960] MLJ 115) Rigby J held that art 144(1) was to be read with art 135(1) at the material time and that the power to appoint and consequently the power to dismiss officers of his rank was vested in the Police Service Commission and that the Commissioner of Police was an authority subordinate to the Police Commission and as such he had no power to dismiss the plaintiff his dismissal as actually effected was contrary to natural justice and in breach of the Constitution because the plaintiff was not

afforded a reasonable opportunity of being heard. The learned trial judge granted the declaration that the purported dismissal was void, inoperative and of no effect and that he was still a member of the said Police Force. The Government appealed to the Court of Appeal ([1961] MLJ 121) which by a majority (Thomson CJ and Hill JA, with Neal J dissenting) allowed the appeal and held that the plaintiff was validly dismissed. From this judgment the plaintiff appealed to the Privy Council.

Holdings:
Held

(1) the words “subject to the provisions of any existing law” in art 144(1) meant only that the Police Service Commission shall operate pursuant to existing laws which are not in conflict with the Constitution. In case of conflict between existing law and the Constitution the latter must prevail and as such it is necessary for the Court to modify the existing law under the authority of art 162. The Police Service Commission was the authority to appoint an officer of appellant’s rank; therefore under art 135(1) it was the authority to dismiss him. The Commissioner of Police was without such authority. The dismissal was void;

(2) the right to be heard carries with it the right of the accused to know the case made against him, the evidence given and the statement made affecting him; and he must be given a fair opportunity to correct or contradict them. The Judge or whoever has to adjudicate must not bear evidence or receive representations from one side behind the back of the other. The Court will not enquire whether the evidence or representations did work to his prejudice. The Court will not go into the likelihood of prejudice. The risk of it is enough. Applying these principles, applicant was not given a reasonable opportunity of being heard.

Artikel 135 hanya menyebut pembuangan kerja (dismissal) dan penurunan pangkat.Ianya tidak menghalang kerajaan dari melakukan :

i. Pemberhentian kerja (termination) samada dari segi kepentingan awam atau atas perjanjian.
ii. Ditukarkan.
iii. Dihentikan kenaikan gaji.
iv. Di beri amaran.

Walaupun di pertikaikan tindakan ini melanggar keadilan semulajadi (natural justice), mahkamah memutuskan ianya boleh di lakukan.
Perintah Am Kerajaan adalah peruntukan yang menjaga kepentingan penjawat awam.

5. Melayu.

Melayu mengikut perlembagaan adalah orang menganut ugama islam,bercakap melayu dan mengamalkan adat melayu seperti peruntukan artikel 160.

160 "Malay" means a person who professes the religion of Islam, habitually speaks the Malay language, conforms to Malay custom and -

(a) was before Merdeka Day born in the Federation or in Singapore or born of parents one of whom was born in the Federation or in Singapore, or is on that day domiciled in the Federation or in Singapore; or
(b) is the issue of such a person;

Bahasa kebangsaan Malaysia adalah bahasa Melayu ( Bukan bahasa Malaysia) seperti peruntukan artikel 152.

152. National language
(1) The national language shall be the Malay language and shall be in such script as Parliament may by law provide:

Keistimewaan orang Melayu.

Artikel 89 -Tanah resab melayu.
Artikel 150(6A) – Parlimen tidak boleh campur tangan dalam adat melayu.

Perlembagaan adalah dibuat oleh politik kerajaan.

6. Adakah Malaysia Negara Islam atau Sekular.

Negara Islam - Perlembagaannya adalah mengikut peraturan yang ditetapkan oleh Islam. Undang-undang tertingginya adalah ugama. Contohnya adalah Arab Saudi.

Sekular – Undang-undang dan ugama adalah berasingan.Peraturan perlembagaan tidak mengikut kehendak ugama.

Di Malaysia artikel 3 mengiktiraf islam sebagai ugama rasmi.Membenarkan keujudan mahkamah syariah.Mempraktikkan Bank Islam, Takaful, wakaf, Baitu Mal, zakat fitrah. Tetapi perlembagaan Malaysia tidak sepenohnya mengikut peraturan islam.

Kesimpulan Malaysia adalah negara hybrid iaitu mengamal kedua-duanya.

Walau bagaimanapun terdapat satu keputusan kes Mahkamah yang mendakwa malaysia adalah negara sekular.

[ fakta kes – sebagai islam okt hendaklah di tuduh dan dihukum mengikut islam.Ini adalah kerana artikel 3 menyatakan islam adalah ugama bagi Malaysia]

Malaysia KUALA LUMPUR — SUPREME COURT CRIMINAL APPEALS
NOS 28 AND 29 OF 1988

Judges SALLEH ABAS LP
WAN SULEIMAN SCJ
SEAH SCJ
HASHIM YEOP A SANI SCJ
SYED AGIL BARAKBAH SCJ

Date 29 FEBRUARY 1988

Citation [1988] 2 MLJ 55

Catchwords:

Criminal Law — Mandatory death sentence for offence of trafficking in dangerous drugs and under Firearms (Increased Penalties) Act — Whether against injunctions of Islam and therefore void — No reliance can be placed on wording of Article 3 of Federal Constitution — Federal Constitution, Arts 3, 4 and 162.

Constitutional Law — Provision that Islam is religion of Federation — Significance of — Provision relates only to rituals and ceremonies — Not much reliance can be placed on wording of Article 3 to sustain submission that the punishment of death for the offence of drug trafficking or any other offence will be void as being unconstitutional — Federal Constitution, Arts 3, 4 and 162.

Facts:

In this appeal, an additional ground of appeal sought to show that the mandatory death sentence for the offence of drug trafficking and for the offence under the Firearms (increased Penalties) Act is against the injunctions of Islam and therefore unconstitutional and void.
Holdings:

Held: (1) the term “Islam” or “Islamic religion” in Article 3 of the Federal Constitution in the context means only such acts as relate to rituals and ceremonies;

(2) during the British colonial period, through their system of indirect rule and establishment of secular institutions, Islamic law was rendered isolated in a narrow confinement of the law of marriage, divorce and inheritance only. It is in this sense of dichotomy that the framers of the Constitution understood the meaning of the word “Islam” in the context of Article 3;

(3) it should thus appear that not much reliance can be placed on the wording of Article 3 to sustain the submission that punishment of death for the offence of drug trafficking or any other offence will be void as being unconstitutional.

Penghuni Gua : Semuga ianya bermenafaat kepada semua dalam memahami sedikit sebanyak mengenai perlembagaan negara.

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