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Monday, 20 December 2010

NOTA-NOTA LAMA : PERLEMBAGAAN 4


Perlembagaan –kuliah4.



1. Kuasa khas perlembagaan.

Terdapat 3 kuasa khas dibawah perlembagaan iaitu mengenai :

i. Subvesif
ii. Darurat
iii. Tahanan pencegahan.

i. Subvesif adalah dibawah artikel 149.

149. Legislation against subversion, action prejudicial to public order, etc
(1) If an Act of Parliament recites that action has been taken or threatened by any substantial body of persons, whether inside or outside the Federation -
(a) to cause, or to cause a substantial number of citizens to fear, organised violence against persons or property; or
(b) to excite disaffection against the Yang di-Pertuan Agong or any Government in the Federation; or
(c) to promote feelings of ill-will and hostility between different races or other classes of the population likely to cause violence; or
(d) to procure the alteration, otherwise than by lawful means, of anything by law established; or
(e) which is prejudicial to the maintenance or the functioning of any supply or service to the public or any class of the public in the Federation or any part thereof; or
(f) which is prejudicial to public order in, or the security of, the Federation or any part thereof,
any provision of that law designed to stop or prevent that action is valid notwithstanding that it is inconsistent with any of the provisions of Article 5, 9, 10 or 13, or would apart from this Article be outside the legislative power of Parliament; and Article 79 shall not apply to a Bill for such an Act or any amendment to such a Bill.
(2) A law containing such a recital as is mentioned in Clause (1) shall, if not sooner repealed, cease to have effect if resolutions are passed by both Houses of Parliament annulling such law, but without prejudice to anything previously done by virtue thereof or to the power of Parliament to make a new law under this Article.

Contoh undang-undang dibuat dibuat dibawah peruntukan ini adalah Akta Keselamatan Dalam Negeri,Akta Kediaman Terhad, Akta Dadah Berbahaya (langkah pencegahan khas ).

ii. Darurat seperti artikel 150.

50. Proclamation of emergency
(1) If the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is satisfied that a grave emergency exists whereby the security, or the economic life, or public order in the Federation or any part thereof is threatened, he may issue a Proclamation of Emergency making therein a declaration to that effect.
(2b) If at any time while a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation, except when both Houses of Parliament are sitting concurrently, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is satisfied that certain circumstances exist which render it necessary for him to take immediate action, he may promulgate such ordinances as circumstances appear to him to require.
(3) A Proclamation of Emergency and any ordinance promulgated under Clause (2b) shall be laid before both Houses of Parliament and, if not sooner revoked, shall cease to have effect if resolutions are passed by both Houses annulling such Proclamation or ordinance, but without prejudice to anything previously done by virtue thereof or to the power of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong to issue a new Proclamation under Clause (1) or promulgate any ordinance under Clause (2b).
(4) While a Proclamation of Emergency is in force the executive authority of the Federation shall, notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, extend to any matter within the legislative authority of a State and to the giving of directions to the Government of a State or to any officer or authority thereof.
(6) Subject to Clause (6a), no provision of any ordinance promulgated under this Article, and no provision of any Act of Parliament which is passed while a Proclamation of Emergency is in force and which declares that the law appears to Parliament to be required by reason of the emergency, shall be invalid on the ground of inconsistency with any provision of this Constitution.
(6a) Clause (5) shall not extend the powers of Parliament with respect to any matter of Islamic law or the custom of the Malays, or with respect to any matter of native law or customs in the State of Sabah or Sarawak; nor shall Clause (6) validate any provision inconsistent with the provisions of this Constitution relating to any such matter or relating to religion, citizenship, or language.

iii. Tahanan Pencegahan seperti artikel 151.

151. Restrictions on preventive detention
(1) Where any law or ordinance made or promulgated in pursuance of this Part provides for preventive detention -
(a) the authority on whose order any person is detained under that law or ordinance shall, as soon as may be, inform him of the grounds for his detention and, subject to Clause (3), the allegations of fact on which the order is based, and shall give him the opportunity of making representations against the order as soon as may be;
(b) no citizen shall continue to be detained under that law or ordinance unless an advisory board constituted as mentioned in Clause (2) has considered any representations made by him under paragraph (a) and made recommendations thereon to the Yang di-Pertuan Agong within three months of receiving such representations, or within such longer period as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong may allow.
(2) An advisory board constituted for the purposes of this Article shall consist of a chairman, who shall be appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong and who shall be or have been, or be qualified to be, a judge of the Federal Court, the Court of Appeal or a High Court, or shall before Malaysia Day have been a judge of the Supreme Court, and two other members who shall be appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong.
(3) This Article does not require any authority to disclose facts whose disclosure would in its opinion be against the national interest.


Ciri-ciri penting dalam kuasa diatas :

i. Peruntukan ini mengenepikan hak asasi manusia .
ii. Kegiatan subversif undang-undang hanya diluluskan oleh parlimen sementara darurat Perlimen dan Agong.
iii. Walaupun darurat telah di istiharkan ianya tidak boleh menyentuh peruntukan seperti seksen 150 (6a) iaitu perkara bersangkut:

a. Undang-undang islam dan adat orang melayu
b. Undang-undang adat dan adat negeri Sabah dan Serawak.
c. Soal berkaitan dengan ugama,kenegaraan dan bahasa.

iv. Bagi undang-undang berkaitan dengan subvesif diluluskan, ianya tidak memerlukan Darurat di istiharkan.

v. Undang-undang yang diluluskan oleh Agong bagi maksud darurat dinamakan Ordinan.

vi. Darurat dikatakan mengancam kedudukan perlembagaan sebagai undang-undang tertinggi kerana ia mengenepi sebarang aspek hak asasi manusia.

2. Raja berperlembagaan dan raja dengan kuasa mutlak.

Raja berperlembagaan adalah bertindak diatas nasihat seperti digariskan dibawah perlembagaan. Contohnya Malaysia.
Raja dengan kuasa mutlak bertindak dengan kuasa sendiri tanpa perlembagaan.Contohnya Brunai dan beberapa negeri kecil islam.

Raja berpelembagaan dapat dilihat pada peruntukan artikel 40.

40. Yang di-Pertuan Agong to act on advice

(1) In the exercise of his functions under this Constitution or federal law the Yang di-Pertuan Agong shall act in accordance with the advice of the Cabinet or of a Minister acting under the general authority of the Cabinet, except as otherwise provided by this Constitution; but shall be entitled, at his request, to any information concerning the government of the Federation which is available to the Cabinet.

(1a) In the exercise of his functions under this Constitution or federal law, where the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is to act in accordance with advice, on advice, or after considering advice, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong shall accept and act in accordance with such advice.
(2) The Yang di-Pertuan Agong may act in his discretion in the performance of the following functions, that is to say:
(a) the appointment of a Prime Minister;
(b) the withholding of consent to a request for the dissolution of Parliament;
(c) the requisition of a meeting of the Conference of Rulers concerned solely with the privileges, position, honours and dignities of Their Royal Highnesses, and any action at such a meeting,
and in any other case mentioned in this Constitution.

Ciri-ciri penting :

i. Agong hendaklah bertindak diatas nasihat kabinet.
ii. Agong ada masanya boleh menggunakan budibicaranya sendiri dalam hal perlantikan perdana menteri,pembubaran parlimen dan memanggil mesyuarat majlis raja-raja mengenai keistimewaan,kedudukan dan maruah raja-raja.
iii. Walaupun Agong boleh melantik Perdana Menteri atas budibicaranya,pertimbangan budibicara tersebut hendaklah berdasarkan :
a. Seseorang dari Dewan Rakyat.
b. Seseorang yang mendapat keyakinan majoriti.

* Almost all function of Yang DiPetuan Agong are on advice except when discretion is explicity given.

Peruntukan ini terdapat dibawah artikel 43 (2).

43. Cabinet
(2) The Cabinet shall be appointed as follows, that is to say:
(a) the Yang di-Pertuan Agong shall first appoint as Perdana Menteri (Prime Minister) to preside over the Cabinet a member of the House of Representatives who in his judgment is likely to command the confidence of the majority of the members of that House; and


3. Majlis raja-raja.

Fungsi majlis raja-raja adalah seperti peruntukan artikel 38(4) dan 159(5).

38. Conference of Rulers
(1) There shall be a Majlis Raja-Raja (Conference of Rulers), which shall be constituted in accordance with the Fifth Schedule.
(2) The Conference of Rulers shall exercise its functions of -
(a) electing, in accordance with the provisions of the Third Schedule, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong and Timbalan Yang di-Pertuan Agong;
(b) agreeing or disagreeing to the extension of any religious acts, observances or ceremonies to the Federation as a whole;
(c) consenting or withholding consent to any law and making or giving advice on any appointment which under this Constitution requires the consent of the Conference or is to be made by or after consultation with the Conference;
(d) appointing members of the Special Court under Clause (1) of Article 182;
(e) granting pardons, reprieves and respites, or of remitting, suspending or commuting sentences, under Clause (12) of Article 42,
and may deliberate on questions of national policy (for example changes in immigration policy) and any other matter that it thinks fit.
(3) When the Conference deliberates on matters of national policy the Yang di-Pertuan Agong shall be accompanied by the Prime Minister, and the other Rulers and the Yang di-Pertua-Yang di-Pertua Negeri by their Menteri-Menteri Besar or Chief Ministers; and the deliberations shall be among the functions exercised, by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong in accordance with the advice of the Cabinet, and by the other Rulers and the Yang di-Pertua-Yang di-Pertua Negeri in accordance with the advice of their Executive Councils.
(4) No law directly affecting the privileges, position, honours or dignities of the Rulers shall be passed without the consent of the Conference of Rulers.
(5) The Conference of Rulers shall be consulted before any change in policy affecting administrative action under Article 153 is made.
(6) The members of the Conference of Rulers may act in their discretion in any proceedings relating to the following functions, that is to say:
(a) the election or removal from office of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong or the election of the Timbalan Yang di-Pertuan Agong;
(b) the advising on any appointment;
(c) the giving or withholding of consent to any law altering the boundaries of a State or affecting the privileges, position, honours or dignities of the Rulers;
(d) the agreeing or disagreeing to the extension of any religious acts, observances or ceremonies to the Federation as a whole;
(e) the appointment of members of the Special Court under Clause (1) of Article 182; or
(f) the granting of pardons, reprieves and respites, or of remitting, suspending or commuting sentences, under Clause (12) of Article 42.


59. Amendment of the Constitution

(5) A law making an amendment to Clause (4) of Article 10, any law passed thereunder, the provisions of Part III, Article 38, 63 (4), 70, 71 (1), 72 (4), 152 or 153 or to this Clause shall not be passed without the consent of the Conference of Rulers.

Ciri-ciri penting tugas majlis raja-raja

i. Memilih yang Di Pertuang Agong dan timbalannya.
ii. Berkaitan ugama.
iii. Meluluskan undang-undang yang memerlukan kelulusan majlis.
iv. Melantik hakim mahkamah khas.
v. Memberi pengampunan.
vi. Tidak ada undang-undang berkaitan dengan keistemewaan,maruah raja-raja boleh diluluskan tanpa keizinannya dan tidak ada undang-undang boleh luluskan dalam perkara artikel 10,38,63(4),70,71(1),72(4),152 atau 153.
vii. Majlis raja-raja boleh memecat Agong tetapi tidak ada peruntukan memecat Timbalan Yang di Pertuan Agong.

4. Kedudukan istimewa orang melayu dan penduduk pribumi.

Agong bertanggunjawab untuk menjaga kedudukan istemewa orang melayu dan penduduk pribumi serta orang asli.Peruntukan terdapat dalam artikel 153.

53. Reservation of quotas in respect of services, permits, etc., for Malays and natives of any of the States of Sabah and Sarawak
(1) It shall be the responsibility of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong to safeguard the special position of the Malays and natives of any of the States of Sabah and Sarawak and the legitimate interests of other communities in accordance with the provisions of this Article.
Soalan :

Kenapa bangsa lain yang merupakan rakyat malaysia tidak diberi persamaan di bawah Perlembagaan seperti artikel 8 yang berbunyi :

8. Equality
(2) Except as expressly authorised by this Constitution, there shall be no discrimination against citizens on the ground only of religion, race, descent or place of birth in any law or in the appointment to any office or employment under a public authority or in the administration of any law relating to the acquisition, holding or disposition of property or the establishing or carrying on of any trade, business, profession, vocation or employment.


5. Tatacara pindaan undang-undang.

Semua jadual selepas artikel 183 boleh dibuat pindaan dengan simple majoriti ahli dewan yang hadir.

Pindaan undang-undang dan perlembagaan(kecuali beberapa tajuk ) hendaklah mendapat 2/3 sokongan dari ahli dewan kedua-dua dewan iaitu dewan rakyat dan dewan negara.Peruntukan ini dibawah artikel 159(3).

159. Amendment of the Constitution

(3) A Bill for making any amendment to the Constitution (other than an amendment excepted from the provisions of this Clause) and a Bill for making any amendment to a law passed under Clause (4) of Article 10 shall not be passed in either House of Parliament unless it has been supported on Second and Third Readings by the votes of not less than two-thirds of the total number of members of that House.

Pindaan undang-undang yang melibatkan beberapa topik hendaklah mendapat persetujuan majlis raja.raja seperti peruntukan artikel 153 (5).

159. Amendment of the Constitution

(4) A law making an amendment to Clause (4) of Article 10, any law passed thereunder, the provisions of Part III, Article 38, 63 (4), 70, 71 (1), 72 (4), 152 or 153 or to this Clause shall not be passed without the consent of the Conference of Rulers

Bagi peruntukan melibatkan sabah dan serawak ianya mesti mendapat persetujuan Yang Di Pertuan Negeri.


6. Kerajaan Berparlimen.

Tidak seperti di USA badan Exekutif dan Perundangan di Malaysia adalah satu dan berkerjasama.Di USA badan Eksukutif dan badang perundangan (perlimen) adalah berasingan.
Di USA President tidak boleh dipecat setelah di lantik dan mempunyai peluang salama dua tempoh iaitu 8 tahun. Di Malaysia Pedana Menteri boleh di pecat dengan undi tidak pecaya dan boleh memegang jawatan tanpa mengira tempoh.

7. Tugas Parlimen.

i. Membuat undang-undang.
ii. Mengawal perbelanjaan.
iii. Mentadbir politik (executive political ) –merujuk kepada peranan menteri menyelesaikan masalah pengundi didalam kawasannya.

8. Kebebasan badan kehakiman.

Peruntukan badan kehakiman adalah dibawah artikel 125.

125. Tenure of office and remuneration of judges of Federal Court

(5) Pending any reference and report under Clause (3) the Yang di-Pertuan Agong may on the recommendation of the Prime Minister and, in the case of any other judge after consulting the Chief Justice, suspend a judge of the Federal Court from the exercise of his functions.
(6) Parliament shall by law provide for the remuneration of the judges of the Federal Court, and the remuneration so provided shall be charged on the Consolidated Fund.
(6a) Subject to the provisions of this Article, Parliament may by law provide for the terms of office of the judges of the Federal Court other than their remuneration.
(6) The remuneration and other terms of office (including pension rights) of a judge of the Federal Court shall not be altered to his disadvantage after his appointment.

126. Power to punish for contempt
The Federal Court, the Court of Appeal or a High Court shall have power to punish any contempt of itself.

127. Restriction on Parliamentary discussion of conduct of judge
The conduct of a judge of the Federal Court, the Court of Appeal or a High Court shall not be discussed in either House of Parliament except on a substantive motion of which notice has been given by not less than one quarter of the total number of members of that House, and shall not be discussed in the Legislative Assembly of any State.

Ciri-ciri penting :
i. Skim perkhidmatan hakim tidak boleh diubah.
ii. Kelakuan mereka tidak boleh di bincang di Parlimen dan terlindung dari politik.
iii. Diberi kuasa untuk menghukum menghina mahkamah.
iv. Semasa menjalankan tugas mereka adalah dilindungi.

Penghuni Gua : Mungkin nota-nota ini boleh membantu anda semua dan pelajar untuk memahami sedikit sebanyak mengenaai perlembagaan. Tq

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